The Masonry of Nürnberg

To wrap up our trip to Germany, we are going to examine the masonry of Nürnberg.  Our friends took us on a day trip to Nürnberg to show us the sights of the city.  We started at the Kaiserberg Nürnberg, also known as Nuremberg Castle.

Nurnberg-castle

Parts of the castle were erected beginning in the 1100s with additions over the centuries.  It has three courtyards containing buildings of increasing importance as you move deeper into the castle.  The photo above is from the “outer courtyard”, which is actually the middle courtyard.  The two-story building at the left is the “deep well” and dates to 1563.  It supplied all of the castle’s water, which was important if the castle was under siege.  The tower at the center is the Sinwell Tower, which was noted for its circular shape.  It is the tallest tower at the castle and probably served primarily as a lookout post.  The entire castle complex was constructed on top of a sandstone hill; many of the stones used to build the castle appear to be sandstone as well.  Much of the castle was damaged during World War II bombing raids, but following the war it was meticulously reconstructed using the original stone wherever possible.

The base of the castle has several cellars that were used to store supplies over the centuries.  During World War II, the Nazi party stored confiscated art in one of these bunkers, which is now a museum.  (Just as described in the Monuments Men.)

Nurnberg-artbunker

To the southwest of the castle is a square containing the Albrecht Dürer House, where the famed engraver lived between 1509 and 1528.  The house, which dates to the 1400s, is visible in the center of the photo.  Like other buildings in Nürnberg, it was heavily damaged during WWII and was partially rebuilt in the late 1940s.

Nurnberg-Durerhouse

Nürnberg has some beautiful stone churches, and St. Sebaldus Church (Sebalduskirche in German) is no exception.  Currently a Lutheran Church, St. Sebaldus was begun in the 1200s but was altered during the 14th and 15th centuries to update the exterior with a Gothic design.  The wikipedia page for the church shows the architectural chronology of the building using 3D models.  The towers, seen below, date to the 15th century.

Nurnberg-StSebaldus

It was impossible to get the entire church in a single photograph, but the one below of the side of the church tells a more complete story of the church’s construction.  The upper story, just below the red tile roof, is part of the original thirteenth-century Romanesque church. The Gothic-style aisle at the first floor dates to the early fourteenth century.  And the chancel just visible at far left was constructed in the late fourteenth century.

Nurnberg-StSebaldusside

Another beautiful church is St. Lorenz, which was constructed in the early 1400s.  Like St. Sebaldus, it has been an important Lutheran church since the Reformation.

Nurnberg-StLorenzChurch

St. Lorenz, like St. Sebaldus, was heavily damaged during Allied bombing raids in World War II, but both were rebuilt and restored in the late 1940s and 1950s.  The restoration of these buildings is impressive, as you would be hard pressed to find portions that look like they were built in the twentieth century.

Nurnberg-StLorenz

Nürnberg also has several bridges crossing the river Pegnitz.  Bridges are usually the first thing to be destroyed during wartime, so I would guess most of the bridges are reconstructions.  This building straddles the river and is made of the same pinkish-gray sandstone that you see all over Nürnberg.

Nurnberg-RiverPegnitz

My favorite bridge was the Henkersteg, or hangman’s bridge.  A wooden foot bridge was built in this location in 1457, but was rebuilt five times between the fifteenth and eighteenth centuries.  It was destroyed during World War II and was rebuilt in the late 1950s.

Nurnberg-henkersteg

The hangman’s bridge is connected to the hangman’s tower, below right, which housed the execution chamber and the hangman’s residence.  It was built in the early fourteenth century, with modifications in 1400, and was probably heavily restored after World War II.

Nurnberg-hangmanstower

Our last stop on this masonry tour of Nürnberg is the weißer turm, or the white tower.  It looks pink with a gray foundation today, but presumably it was painted or stuccoed white at some point in its history.  Originally a toll gate, it was completed in 1250 and was part of the last city wall of Nürnberg.  This imposing tower is now a U-bahn station – the best looking subway station I have ever seen.

Nurnberg-weissenturm

And although it’s not masonry, there is an interesting bronze fountain at the base of the weißer turm.  It was designed by sculptor Jürgen Weber and was installed in 1984.  Called the Ehekarussell, or marriage fountain, it depicts the ups and downs of a marriage.  Clearly the marriage didn’t end well.

Nurnberg-sins

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State Capitol Annex

The State Capitol Annex is one of my favorite buildings in the Civic Center.

CapitolAnnex

Funded by the federal Public Works Administration (PWA) and the Works Progress Administration (WPA), the Capitol Annex was completed in 1939 as an addition to the 1894 Capitol Building located across 14th Avenue.  According to the National Register nomination [PDF], the Annex and adjacent Boiler Plant were designed by a group of architects known as the Associated Architects for the Colorado State Capitol Annex Building, led by G. Meredith Musick [PDF], a well-known and prolific Denver architect.  Other architects in the group included Arthur A. Fisher, Sidney G. Frazier, F.E. Mountjoy, C. Francis Pillsbury and Charles E. Thomas.  Several of these architects went on to collaborate on other projects as the local economy began to improve in the 1940s.  The general contractor, the F.E. Kirchhof Construction Company, was also prolific in the early part of the twentieth century.

CapitolAnnexfront

This majestic building is like a recipe book of Art Deco features: setbacks, curved corners, windows stacked in vertical piers, and stylized ornament carved in low relief.
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Boulder County Courthouse

Earlier this summer I ventured up to Boulder for a meeting of the Rocky Mountain Chapter of the Association for Preservation Technology.  I got to Boulder a little early to nose around Pearl Street and discovered this gem of a building: the Boulder County Courthouse.

BoulderCourthouse

Built between 1933 and 1934 and designed in the Art Deco style by architect Glen H. Huntington, the Boulder County Courthouse building replaced the original Second-Empire style courthouse that burned in 1932.  The postcard below shows the original building (postcard courtesy Courthouse History).  I am sure the citizens of Boulder were shocked to have this stately, albeit oppressive-looking brick and stone structure replaced with the light-colored, Cubist design of the new stone courthouse.

BoulderCourthouseOriginal

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